During an EGD, a flexible tube is passed through your mouth and throat and into your upper digestive tract. This allows the doctor to examine your esophagus (food tube), stomach and duodenum (first portion of the small intestine) and to identify any abnormalities. A small piece of tissue (biopsy) may be taken for examination under a microscope. The test is done for a variety of reasons, including to determine the causes of anemia or bleeding or swallowing problems and to examine damage from reflux or heartburn.
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